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The Bible records that there was one language till the tower of Babel incident. It reads:

And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. (Genesis 11:1)

It was at that rebellious tower that:

The LORD did there confound the language of all the earth. (Genesis 11:9)

So that is clear–all spoke one language till the divine act of God at the tower of Babel.

BUT ONE MIGHT SAY: Doesn’t the previous Chapter talk about the division of people according to their tongue? Yes, it does. Let us read it.

By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations. (Genesis 10:5)

These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations. (Genesis 10:20)

These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations. (Genesis 10:31)

Because there is the mention of different tongues prior to the tower of Babel incident, does that suggest that people were speaking different languages even before the construction of the rebellious tower? Not necessarily. Let me cite an example in Genesis itself. This is regarding the creation of man:

So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. (Genesis 1:27)

Look at the next Chapter:

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. (Genesis 2:7)

What does it mean? Did God make man twice-once in Chapter 1 and again in Chapter 2? Not at all! All would agree that Genesis Chapter 1 talks about the creation of man and woman, and in the next Chapter it gives the details of how they were created!

And this is what it is all about Chapter 10 & 11 of Genesis. Genesis Chapter 10 mentions the divisions of nations according to their tongues, and Genesis Chapter 11 gives the complete coverage as to how it all happened!